Do you wonder why storms, floods, and droughts seem more severe now?
Do you wonder why global temperatures increased rapidly from 1970 to 1998, hardly increased at all from 1998 to 2013, and then increased at a five-times higher rate from 2014 to 2016?
Do you wonder why climate changes and what really caused global warming since 1970 and throughout all of Earth history?
Do you wonder how well greenhouse-warming theory fits Earth history?
Do you wonder whether greenhouse-warming theory is even physically possible?
You have come to the right place. This website is the result of nearly twelve years of independent research, by a retired, respected, earth scientist, reevaluating the best available observations of climate change and each of the assumptions underlying greenhouse-warming theory.
Primary Conclusions Documented On This Website
The globe has warmed approximately 1oC (1.8oF) since 1970.
Greenhouse-warming theory, however, is physically impossible. Heat cannot flow in the ways assumed. Greenhouse gases do not affect global temperatures. Major warming in future decades predicted by climate models will not happen. We can burn fossil fuels safely provided we minimize pollution.
Observed warming is explained clearly by ozone depletion, which allows more than usual, extra-hot, ultraviolet-B, solar radiation to reach Earth’s surface. That is the primary reason why temperature increases are highest in the polar regions where ozone depletion is the greatest.
Warming from 1970 to 1998 was caused by ozone depletion due to manufacture of CFC gases. Warming stopped increasing in 1998 because the Montreal Protocol drastically limited production of these CFC gases.
Five-times more rapid warming from 2014 to 2016 was caused by ozone depletion due to chlorine and bromine gases emitted by the largest basaltic lava flows to form since 1783. These flows from Bárðarbunga volcano in central Iceland covered 85 km2 (33 mi2) of land within six months beginning on August 29, 2014.
Major periods of rapid warming throughout Earth history are contemporaneous with major basaltic lava flows covering hundreds to millions of square kilometers. The larger the flows, the greater the warming. These large flows are typically contemporaneous with the ends of geologic Periods, Epochs, and Ages.
Major explosive volcanic eruptions eject water vapor and sulfur dioxide into the lower stratosphere where they form aerosols that reflect and scatter sunlight. Each major eruption causes approximately 0.5oC cooling for two to four years. This short-term global cooling lowers ocean temperatures for up to a century. This is why several major explosive eruptions per century, continuing over tens of thousands of years, are observed to cool Earth incrementally down into ice-age conditions.
Throughout much of Earth history, climate warms suddenly within years and cools over millennia in erratic sequences that average only a few thousand years in duration.
Global climate throughout Earth history is determined by a delicate balance between the number of major explosive volcanic events per century typically occurring above subduction zones, such as those observed around the Pacific Ocean, and the extent of major effusive, basaltic lava flows typically occurring in continental rift zones such as Iceland and East Africa.
Since 1988, thousands of scientists have worked very hard, through the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), to demonstrate broad consensus on the greenhouse warming theory of climate change in order to spur political action.
Some even say “The science is settled. Let’s get on with the solution.”
Consensus, however, is the stuff of politics, while debate is the stuff of science. Become informed. Help put the debate back into climate science. Science is never “settled.” We still have a lot to learn.